A sampling procedure in which some information is collected from the whole sample and additional information is collected, at the same time or later, from sub samples of the entire sample (i.e. some units provide more information than others).
A multi-phase sample collects basic information from a large sample of units and then, for a sub sample of these units, collects more detailed information. The most common form of multi-phase sampling is two-phase sampling (or double sampling), but three or more phases are also possible.
Multi-phase sampling is useful when the frame lacks auxiliary information that could be used to stratify the population or to screen out part of the population.
Example 1: Suppose that an organization needs information about cattle farmers in Alberta, but the survey frame lists all types of farms—cattle, dairy, grain, hog, poultry and produce. To complicate matters, the survey frame does not provide any auxiliary information for the farms listed there.A simple survey could be conducted whose only question is "Is part or all of your farm devoted to cattle farming?" With only one question, this survey should have a low cost per interview (especially if done by telephone) and, consequently, the organization should be able to draw a large sample. Once the first sample has been drawn, a second, smaller sample can be extracted from among the cattle farmers and more detailed questions asked of these farmers. Using this method, the organization avoids the expense of surveying units that are not in this specific scope (i.e., non-cattle farmers).
Multi-phase sampling can be used when there is insufficient budget to collect information from the whole sample, or when doing so would create excessive burden on the respondent, or even when there are very different costs of collection for different questions on a survey.
Example 2: A health survey asks participants some basic questions about their diet, smoking habits, exercise routines and alcohol consumption. In addition, the survey requires that respondents subject themselves to some direct physical tests, such as running on a treadmill or having their blood pressure and cholesterol levels measured.Filling out questionnaires or interviewing participants are relatively inexpensive procedures, but the medical tests require the supervision and assistance of a trained health practitioner, as well as the use of an equipped laboratory, both of which can be quite costly. The best way to conduct this survey would be to use a two-phase sample approach. In the first phase, the interviews are performed on an appropriately sized sample. From this sample, a smaller sample is drawn. This second sample will take part in the medical tests.
- Difference & Similarities between Multiphase & Multistage Sampling:
Multi-phase sampling is quite different from multi-stage sampling, despite the similarities in name. Although multi-phase sampling also involves taking two or more samples, in multiphase sampling all samples are drawn from the same frame and at each phase the units are structurally the same. However, as with multi-stage sampling, the more phases used, the more complex the sample design and estimation will become.
It leads to inferences of predetermined precisions based on a number of observations.
It reduces the error.
It is time consuming & costly
It's planning & administration is complicated
Activity: Now since you'll know what multiphase sampling is, can you think of a merit & a demrit other than mentioned above. Write them down in the comments with proper rationale.